What is Ethereum Classic? And how does ETC work? 2023 edition


Ethereum developers have been hard at work at the merge for years, delaying it multiple times in the process. To pull off a switch of this magnitude, engineers have been conducting dress rehearsals for the merge in recent months involving several Ethereum test networks to look for bugs or hiccups in the transition process. The most recent of these tests, which took place on the Goerli testnet, successfully merged earlier this month. Gas fees are the cost of conducting a transaction on Ethereum, and they can skyrocket during busy periods , potentially adding hundreds of dollars to transaction costs. However, the merge doesn’t affect the network’s capacity, so users won’t see a change in this dynamic after the merge is complete. Crypto miners might fork and duplicate Ethereum’s assets on a separate proof-of-work chain, and this opens the door for some bad actors to sell off illegitimate tokens for a quick cash grab.

  • The design ensures that people can track different trades made on the blockchain, while ensuring all information is kept pseudonymous.
  • This number continually fluctuates, with the average mining time being 11.6 seconds at the time of writing.
  • As the ETC price rises, the rewards miners receive for verifying blocks increase, incentivising more miners to join the network and increase its network security.
  • Just as airdrops, NEO holders are allowed free only for holding their coins either in chilly stockpiling or in a suitable wallet.
  • A few differences between Ethereum and Ethereum Classic include the latter’s dedication to Proof of Work, its decision to implement a capped supply with a fixed emissions curve, and its smaller community.

Ethereum Classic is an open source, blockchain-based distributed computing platform featuring smart contract functionality. It supports a modified version of Nakamoto consensus via transaction-based state transitions executed on a public Ethereum Virtual Machine . Proof of Stake uses randomly selected validators to confirm transactions and create new blocks. Proof of Work uses a competitive validation method to confirm transactions and add new blocks to the blockchain.

What Are Consensus Mechanisms?

Fees also vary based on the platform or exchange used to purchase Ethereum Classic. Network fees are referred to as “gas” in the Ethereum network and they are often paid in very small amount of ethereum tokens called „gwei.“ The Ethereum Classic blockchain differs from many cryptocurrencies by enabling developers to use smart contracts and launch open-source apps. One of the main concerns with the PoW model is the amount of energy it costs to power all the hardware around the world that gets used to mine popular crypto assets like Bitcoin and Ethereum. Another issue is what’s known as the 51 percent attack scenario, a hypothetical situation in which malicious actors collude to take over more than half of the validators in the network to forge the blockchain record and steal crypto or NFTs.

For all the known downsides, the projects that nevertheless opt for Proof of Stake must either be extremely concerned about energy usage, or possibly more believably, are primarily concerned that staking will economically benefit stakers. However, this concern itself is misguided, as a project can only have long term value if it provides utility, which is undermined by the centralization and trade-offs necessitated by Proof of Stake. It is commonly claimed that the concept of slashing is a solution to the nothing at stake problem, a technique that uses cryptographic proofs to punish stakers that validate the „wrong“ side of a split. This is all well and good but slashing only works when forks are running protocols that can validate each other’s proofs. For example, if Chain A offers a 12% staking reward, why would stakers stake Chain B’s 3% reward, when they could simply stake A and sell those rewards for B, ending up with more B than they would by staking B directly?

Everything you need to know about Ethereum Classic’s technology and history

It has an advantage under the mining as the second one requires a lot of power to run diverse crypto calculations, unlock block by block of a particular currency. The processing force converts into a high stake of power and electricity. An ETP is a type of security that can be traded on a stock exchange with its value tracking an underlying security. An Ethereum ETP, for example, tracks the price of Ethereum, allowing investors to gain exposure to the cryptocurrency without the need to physically hold the asset. „Earlier today, @eth_classic $ETC, experienced a chain reorg of 3,693 blocks,“ Binance wrote on Twitter in the latter instance. „Our alert system caught this immediately and automatically halted withdrawals and deposits. This looks like it may be a 51% attack.“

Can Ethereum Classic reach 100 dollars?

Ethereum Classic Price Prediction for 2024

Moving ahead, the second half of 2024 is believed to ignite a bull run but with a lowered pace than that of 2021. The prices are believed to rise beyond $100 in a short time and quickly gain levels beyond $110.

Instead of creating new ETH tokens and validating transactions via the energy-intensive Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism, this process will now be done through the much more efficient Proof-of-Stake model. When these forks happen, whether via mass dissent or a hacking event, they can result in the duplication of digital assets. This was the case when bad actors hacked DAO in June 2016, the decentralized autonomous organization that launched earlier that year on Ethereum. The network also reallocated the DAO’s ETH, enabling investors to withdraw their funds.

How does Ethereum Classic work?

Buying Ethereum Classic requires having a cryptocurrency wallet that is compatible with Ethereum Classic. Supported wallets for Ethereum Classic include physical hardware wallets from Trezor and Ledger, and software wallets from Trust Wallet. While both Ethereum Classic and Ethereum currently use the proof-of-work method, Ethereum also uses a different consensus mechanism known as proof of stake . The main Ethereum blockchain responded by updating the blockchain to remove the incorrect transactions. There were many in the original Ethereum community that disagreed with that approach, which led to the fork.

You should consult a qualified licensed advisor before engaging in any . Stakers will be unable to make withdrawals on their staked ETH 6-12 months after the Merge. In what will be known as the Shanghai upgrade, users will be able to withdraw staked ETH, with a daily withdrawal limit of 40,000 ETH per day (out of ~13 million staked). Prior to the Merge, mining revenue fell hard from its $2.5 billion peak in May 2021, though Ethereum miners still took home close to half a billion dollars in June of this year. Another reason for the titular switch away from ETH 2.0 is to prevent users from getting tricked into swapping to fictitious ETH2 tokens from scammers. Everything you need to know about the biggest upgrade in crypto history.

Ethereum 2.0 Staking Ecosystem Report

This uncertainty has led to a doubling of the price of ETC since June, bringing the token to a single-day increase of 29% in late July. This will play a role in influencing specific miners to take their ASIC hardware and start mining the potentially lucrative ETH Classic. The Merge will bring added measures against malicious actors that try to attack the Ethereum network. Slashing is a new penalty system that will punish malicious validators and would-be attackers by inflicting penalties such as docking coins.

Ethereum Classic soars 100% in nine days outperforming ETH as ‚the Merge‘ approaches – Cointelegraph

Ethereum Classic soars 100% in nine days outperforming ETH as ‚the Merge‘ approaches.

Posted: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 07:00:00 GMT [source]

Unlike the classic Ethereum, which could handle only 15 transactions per second, Ethereum 2.0 is much more efficient, completing up to 100,000 transactions each second. Each shard is basically a new chain connected to the older Ethereum chain to link with the previously recorded data. Moreover, all of them will work the same way as the old one did, except for the difference that now workload has been distributed onto multiple databases.

There is also the etc proof of stakesibility for slashing to be triggered by massive Ethereum client software failure, which makes client diversity highly important. Every 32 slots (6.4 minutes)—also known as an epoch—each validator on the network also has the opportunity to submit one attestation in favor of the epoch. It takes two justified epochs (a “justified” epoch meaning the majority of validators agreed on it) for those epochs, and all the blocks inside of them, to be considered finalized. Once a block is finalized, reverting that block requires at least 1/3 of all validators to burn their deposits, which is estimated to cost over 3 million ETH. The network randomly selects one validator to be the proposer for each slot.

WalletInvestormade a downbeat ethereum classic price prediction for 2023, suggesting the coin could fall down over the course of the next 12 months to stand at just $6.53 on 21 December next year. Like Ethereum, Ethereum Classic operates as a smart contract network and can host decentralised applications . As the ETC price NEAR rises, the rewards miners receive for verifying blocks increase, incentivising more miners to join the network and increase its network security.


https://www.beaxy.com/ is planned to begin in 2023 and should enable giant leaps in scalability for the network. In January, 2019, a group of hackers took majority control—known as a 51% attack—of the Ethereum Classic blockchain. The Ethereum Classic network again fell victim to 51% attacks in July and August of 2020. Like transaction times, network and transaction processing fees can vary based on Ethereum Classic’s network congestion.


Just as airdrops, NEO holders are allowed free only for holding their coins either in chilly stockpiling or in a suitable wallet. Qtum staking also requires no base sum, which combined with the fact that blocks each are generated every couple of minutes, and are placed on 2×2 mode. With the PoS, it’s challenging to build harmful ‘centralized cartels’ like selfish mining in PoW. In short, the advantages of the PoS in contrast with the opposed algorithms are security, reduced risk of centralization, and energy efficiency.

But there are still some misconceptions around exactly what The Merge accomplished. It represents one of the most significant upgrades in web3 history and a critical piece of the ongoing Ethereum roadmap. Mempool Explorer Monitor real-time transaction event streams with Mempool Explorer. For Dapps Unrivaled transaction transparency with Blocknative’s proven mempool platform.


An important feature of Ethereum Classic is that it allows users on the network to run smart contracts. These smart contracts contain agreements, or if-then conditions, that are written in lines of codes that are self-executing. Since the process is entirely self-contained there does not need to be a 3rd party handling any transactions between a buyer and seller, such as a lawyer. New forks enjoy the option of either slashing or not-slashing validators on the old chain, optimizing the punishment of laggards to get their desired outcome, and manipulating the economics of a hard fork decision.

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